স্যাটেলাইট

স্যাটেলাইট

তথ্য ও প্রযুক্তি

স্যাটেলাইট শব্দটা জ্যোতির্বিজ্ঞানে প্রথম ব্যবহার করেছিলেন জোহানেস কেপলাপ, ১৬১০ সালে, বৃহস্পতিকে ঘিরে ঘূর্ণায়মান চাঁদগুলোকে বুঝানোর জন্য, যে চাঁদগুলো প্রথম দেখেছিলেন গ্যালিলি, তার নিজের নির্মিত টেলিস্কোপ দিয়ে।

মনে প্রশ্ন আসছে না, স্যাটেলাইটের নাম কেন ‘‘স্যাটেলাইট‘‘ ? উত্তরটা দেওয়া যাক। স্যাটেলাইট শব্দটি আসেছে ল্যাটিন থেকে, যেটার ইংরেজি অনুবাদ করলে দাড়ায় ‘‘অনুসরন“ করা। চাঁদ পৃথিবীকে ঘিরে ঘুরছে, চাঁদ একটি স্যাটেলাইট। পৃথিবী সূর্যকে গিরে ঘুরছে, সুতরাং পৃথীবিও একটি স্যাটেলাইট। সূর্য আকাশগঙ্গা গ্যালাক্সিকে ঘিরে ঘুরছে, সুতরাং সূর্যও একটি স্যাটেলাইট। এদুলা হচ্ছে প্রাকৃতিক স্যাটেলাইট। কিন্তু মানুষের তৈরি কোন যন্ত্র পৃথিবীকে ঘিরে ঘুরছে, এই ধরণের কোন কিছু বুঝানোর জন্য স্যাটেলাইট শব্দটির প্রথম ব্যবহার হয় ১৯৩৬ সালে, এবং পরে বৈজ্ঞানেকভাবে গৃহীত হয় ১৯৫৭ সালে।

স্যাটেলাইট জিনিসটা আসলে কী?

জিনিসটা আসলে কী? একটা জিনিস রকেট দিয়ে পৃথিবীর বায়ুমন্ডলের বাইরে পাঠিয়ে দিলাম, কেন সেটা ছিটকে পরছে না বাইরে? বা, আবার পড়ে যাচ্ছে না পৃথিবীতে? এখানেই বিজ্ঞানের সৌন্দর্য। যে কোন বস্তুই অন্য বস্তুকে নিজের দিকে টানে, যাকে আমরা মহাকর্ষ  বলি। আর, সেই বস্তুগুলার একটা যদি পৃথিবী হয়, তখন পৃথিবী যেই বলে অন্য বস্তুটাবে টানে, তাকে বলে অভিকর্ষ। এই মহাকর্ষ বলের কারনেই আমরা এবং অন্যরা সূর্যের চারদিকে ঘুরছে অবিরাম। তো পৃথিবীর বায়ুন্ডলের বাইরে কোন স্থানে পৃথিবীপ এই আকর্ষণ বল এবং পাঠানো বস্তুর গতি, এই দুটোর ভারসাম্য খুঁজে বের করে যদি সেই গতিতে কোন কিছুকে সেখানে পাঠানো হয়, তখন সেটা সেখানে পৃথিবীর আকর্ষণে আটকে গিয়ে ঘুরতে থাকবে পৃথিবীকে ঘিরে। যেহেতু বায়ু বা অন্য কিছুর বাধা নেই সেখানে, তাই সেই গতিতেই সেটা চলতে থাকে, (নিউটনের গতির প্রথম সূত্র)।

স্যাটেলাইট কেন পাঠিয়ে দিলাম

হাজার টাকা খরচ করে পাঠায়ে তো দিলাম। লাভ কী? লাভ হইলো, এইযে আপরে ইন্টারনেট ব্যবহার করে ফেইসবুকে বসে স্যাটেলাইটের প্রয়োজন নিয়ে মজা করছেন, ট্রল করছেন, সেই আপনি যেনো আপনার জীবনটা একটু স্বাচ্ছন্দ্যের সাথে কাটাতে পারেন সেটা নিশ্চিত করা। সেটা কিভাবে করে? সেটা করে আবহাওয়া সম্পর্কে আগাম পূর্বাভাস দিয়ে, যাতে আপনে আপনার জীবনে আবহাওয়া, ঝড়, জলোচ্ছ্বাস, এসব সম্পর্কিত জামেলায় কম পড়েন। আরও অনেক কিছু আছে যেগুলো আপনার দৃষ্টিতে প্রয়োযনীয় বলে আপনার মনে হয়না। যেমন সূর্য, সৌরজগত, উল্লাপাত, উল্কাদের গতি-প্রকৃতি এবং সৌরজগতের অন্যান্য গ্রহ-উপগ্রহগুলো পর্যবেক্ষণ করা।

কত প্রকার

অনেক ধরনের স্যাটেলাইট আছে। তবে, মূলত যে দুটি সবচেয়ে বেশি প্রচলিত সেদুটি হচ্ছে জিওস্টেশনারি স্যাটেলেইট এবং পোলার অরবিটিং স্যাটেলাইট। জিওস্টেশনারি স্যাটেলেইট হচ্ছে সেগুলো যেগুলোর গতি পৃথিবীর ঘুর্ণন ঘতির সমান এবং বিষুব রেখা বরাবর পশ্চিমে থেকে পূর্বে ঘুরতে থাকে।

আরেকটি হচ্ছে পোলার অরবিটিং স্যাটেলাইট। নাম থেকেই বুঝা যাচ্ছে, এটার ঘূর্ণন গতি হচ্ছে পোল টু পোল, মানে উত্তর দক্ষিণ বরাবর। যেহেতু পৃথিবী ঘুরে পূর্ব পশ্চিম বরাবর, এবং এই স্যাটেলাইট ঘুরে উত্তর দক্ষিণ বরাবর, তাই এটা পৃথিবীর কোন একটা অবস্থানের সাপেক্ষে কখনোই স্থির থাকেনা।

জিওস্টেশনারি স্যাটেলেইট ভূপৃষ্ঠ থেকে দূরত্ব ২০০০০ কিমি, পোলার অরবিটিং স্যাটেলাইট ভূপৃষ্ঠ থেকে দূরত্ব মাত্র ৮৫০ কিমি। যার ফলে পোলার অরবিটিং স্যাটেলাইট আবহাওয়া সম্পর্কে তথ্য দিতে পারে আরও নিখুতভাবে।

বাংলাদেশের জিওস্টেশনারি স্যাটেলেইট

বঙ্গবন্ধু-১ স্যাটেলাইট, যা প্রথমে মে ১০, ২০১৮ তারিভে লঞ্চ করার কথা ছিলো, যেটা কারিগরি সমস্যার কারণে সম্ভব হয়নি; পরের দিন, মে ১১, ২০১৮ তারিখে সফলভাবে স্যাটেলাইটি মহাশূন্যে প্রেরণ করা হয়।

স্যাটেলাই‌টি দুনিয়ায় আমাদের প্রবশ আমাদের আরও আগে হলেও কমিউনিকেশন স্যাটেলাইটের জগতে আমরা প্রবেশ করেছি বঙ্গবন্ধু-১ এর মাধ্যমে। এটা কি অসাধারন অনুভূতির একটা ব্যাপার না যে, নিজের দেশের কমিউনিকেশন স্যাটেলাইট জগতের পদার্পনের মূহূর্তের সাক্ষী হতে পেরেছি আমরা?

172 thoughts on “স্যাটেলাইট

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